Jaguar was founded by William Walmsley and Sir William Lyons, and the automaker is headquartered in Coventry, United Kingdom. The key people of the company are Ratan Tata as its chairman and Dr Ralf Speth as Chief Executive Officer (CEO), and Adrian Hallmark as the Global Brand Director. The products of Jaguar is manufacturing of Luxury cars. It employs to around 10000 and the parent company of Jaguar is “Jaguar Land Rover Automotive Private Limited Corporation”.
Jaguar cars, since from the year 2010’s December month it is officially united as Jaguar Land Rover Limited, is a multinational manufacturer of car from Britain, has its headquarters located in Whitley, in Coventry, in United Kingdom, owned by JLRAPL (Jaguar Land Rover Automotive Private Limited Corporation), which is a subsidiary of automaker of India, the company Tata Motors.
Jaguar was founded initially by Sir William Lyouns as the Swallow Sidecar Company in the year 1922, originally manufacturing motorcycle sidecars earlier developing passenger cars. After the World War II the name was transformed to Jaguar to avoid the connotations of unfavourable of the SS initials. Following the sale of company in the year 1968 to the motor corporation of British that merged with Motor Corporation of Leyland and later was make public as British Leyland-in the year 1984 on the stock exchange of London jaguar was listed, and became the FTSE 100 Index’s constituent until it was picked up by Ford Motors in the year 1990. Jaguar has manufactured cars in the recent years for the prime minister of British, and the recent most delivery being a model Jaguar XJ on the month of May in the year 2010. The company also holds warrants of royals from HRH Prince Charles and HM Queen Elizabeth II.
Today Jaguar cars are designed in engineering centres of Jaguar Land Rover at the facility in Whitney, in Coventry and at its Gaydon site, in Warwickshire, and it is manufactured in assembly plant Castle Bromwich of Jaguar near Birmingham.
The company Swallow sidecar was founded in the year 1922 by 2 motorcycle enthusiasts i.e. by William Walmsley and William Lyons which leaded to the establishment of SS Cars Limited. The name SS Jaguar was first appeared in the year 1935 on a saloon of 2.5 litres, which were the models of sport such as SS 100 and the SS 90.
After the finish of World War II the cash was short, and Jaguar sold the premises and plant of Motor Panels, a manufacturing company of pressed steel body they had taken over in the 1930s late when prospects of growth seemed more secure. Rubery Owen was the buyer. On the other hand, Jaguar achieved comparative success in the commercial with their post early models of war; for other company and auto makers who are all based on Coventry were having tough times and was capable to purchase from Standard motor company of John Black the plant where 6 cylinders engine had been built by standard for supplying especially to Jaguar.
The name was made by Jaguar in the market of automobiles by manufacturing an eye catching sports class cars such as the 1949’s XK 120, manufactured into XK 150 and XK 140, and in the year 1961 with E Type. These were all embodied and successful mantra of value for the money what they have paid for. In international motorsports they were all successful, in the 1950s a path was followed in order for proving the integrity of engineering of the products of company.
Sales slogan of Jaguar for years was “Grace, Pace, Space”, an epitomised mantra by the record sales which was attained by the Mks II, I saloons, MK VII, IX and the XJ6 later.
The core success of bill lyons following World War II was the dual-cam straight 6 engine, which was a design realised and conceived pre-war while the staff of design at the plant Coventry were separating their time between designing and fire watching the new power plant.
For placing this in context, point of reference for competition and pre-war racing engines was the Twin Cam or Double Knocker engine. The new engine of Jaguar was a cross flow hemispherical cylinder head with inclined valves from the vertical; at 30 degrees originally at inlet and 45 degrees at exhaust and standardised later to 45 degrees for both exhaust and inlet valves.
As the ratings of fuel octane were comparatively low from 1948 straight on, configuration of 3 piston were offered in the shapes such as domed for high octane, flat for medium octane, and dished for low octane.
William Bill Heynes, who was the main engineer got assistance by Walter Wally Hassan, who were determined for designing the unit of the twin over-head camshaft i.e. OHC unit. Over the misgivings from the determined designer Hassan, Bill Lyons agreed to him. It was quite risky for taking what had before been measured a low volume or racing and cantankerous engine which needs constant applying and fettling it to the volume of reasonable production for saloon cars.
The various versions subsequent engine was the Jaguar’s mainstay power plant, employed in the variants like MK II and I Saloons, Mk VII Saloon, XK 120, and XK 150 and 140. It was also used in the versions of E Type, itself an expansion from the Le Mans conquering and race winning D and C type sports racing cars sophisticated as the passing XKSS, a D Type road legal version model.
Fe types of engines have been demonstrated such longetivity and ubiquity: Jaguar employed the double over-head camshaft XK engine, as it originated to be recognised, in the Jaguar Saloon model XJ6 from 1969 through the year 1992, and used in the variant J60 as the power plant in such wide range of vehicles as the CVR (combat vehicle reconnaissance) of the British Army’s family vehicles, as healthy as the Ferret Scout Car, the Fox Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle, and the Stone field 4WD all terrain lorry. Maintained properly, the standard fabrication XK engine would reach to useful life of 200000 miles.
Two of the moment of proudest in the long history of Jaguar in motor sport involved perceiving the 24 hours Le Mans race, firstly in the year 1951, and again in the year 1953. The triumph at the Le Mans which held in the year 1955 was overshadowed by existence in the worst accident of motorsport history’s occasion. Later in the Scottish racing team’s hands Ecurie Ecosse 2 more wins were further added in the year 1956 and in 1957 respectively.
Despite delivering such an orientation in the performance, it was always the intension of Lyons to build the business by manufacturing sporting saloons of World class in larger numbers than the market of sports car could support. A reputation for its excellence and financial stability were secured by Jaguar with a series of styled elegantly luxury saloons, which included the 3 ½ and 3 litres cars, the Mark IX, VIII, and VII, the compact Mark 2 and 1, and the XJ12 and XJ6. All were believed to be very good values, with good handling, comfortable rides, great style and high performance.
Combined with the style setting XK 140, XK 120, and XK 150 sports car’s series, and nonpareil E type version car, elan of Jaguar car as a prestigious manufacturer of motorcar had few rivals. The post war achievements of Jaguar Company are remarkable, taking into account of both the shortages, which drove the state and Britain of metallurgical era’s development.
From the company of Daimler Limited, Jaguar in the year 1951 leased Browns Lane, which became quickly as its main plant. Daimler was purchased by Jaguar-not to be get confused with Daimler AG or Daimler-Benz-in the year 1960 from BSA. Jaguar used the marque of Daimler from the 1960s late as a name of the brand for their luxurious most saloons.
An end to the independence: British Leyland, British Motor Holding- Jaguar-Rover-Triumph
All monocque bodies of Jaguar are all made by pressed steel company Ltd, leaving installation and provision of the mechanicals to the company. In the year 1965’s mid, the BMC (British motor company), the Morris-Austin mutual business enterprise, carried pressed steel. Alarmed by relegation of Jaguar to the non-preferred customer’s position by the manufacturer of the major part of its manufactured goods sir William Lyons was elected not to fight the offer of British Motor Corporation for buying Jaguar and on the month of September in the year 1966 the BMC took over the control. In opinion of these important acquisitions, BMC, Pressed Steel and Jaguar changed its name to BMH (British Motor Holdings) at the 1966’s end.
The government also pished the British Motor Holdings to join hands with managed well wealthy Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd, which manufactures Leyland trucks and buses, standard triumph, and also Rover vehicles.
Temporary arrival to independence
Over the few next year’s Jaguar became clear that for the reason that of the low respect for many of the products insufficient capital of group may possibly be provided to begin and developing new models, including the Jaguars itself, on the whole if Jaguar were to continue as a portion of the team.
Jaguar on the month of July in the year 1984 was came out as a separate motor company on the market of stock-one of the many privatisations of thatcher government for creating its own record at track and in order to find new preference of government or suppliers-that twisted out to be the Ford.
Jaguar moving on to a higher new price range
Sir John Egan, who was named as the new chairperson of Jaguar Cars in the year 1980, he was welcomed as a superman of industry for unprecedented prosperity of Jaguar soon after its privatisation. In 1986’s early Egan stated ha had tackled 1. Laid off and poor productivity about 1/3rd of the ten thousand employees for cutting cost of the company, 2. Lagging delivery schedule, 3. Quality control. Since that commentators pointed out that he had exploited an ageing range of models on which all costs of developments had been raised off and written as well as increasing the push for improving the quality of Jaguar. In United Sates of America the price were covered be a favourable rate exchange until after the eighties mid but the requirement for new models and the stock market crash in the year 1987 carried it all to an finish.
Era of Ford Motor Company
Offers were made by Ford to UK and US shareholders of Jaguar to buy their stakes in the year 1989 on the November month; listing of Jaguar on the stock exchange of London was removed on the 28th of February month in 1990. It became a part of new premier group of automotive along with Volvo Cars, Aston Martin, and Land Rover from 2000 of Ford in the year 1999. Subsequently Aston Martin was sold off in the year 2007. Between purchasing of Jaguar by Ford in the year 1989 and in the year 2008 selling it to another motor company, the auto manufacturer based from Dearborn did not had any profit.
Era of Tata Motors
On the first of January month in the year 2008, formally Ford declared that Tata Motors has favoured the bidder. Endorsements were also received by the Tata Motors. According to the auction process’s rules, this statement would not prohibit any newer potential suitor automatically. On the other hand, Ford would now stay capable for entering into a detailed talk with Tata Motors on the issues concerning about ranging from concerns of labour such as pension sand security for job, engine production and IT systems under technology, and intelligent property, and also the finishing sale price. On the 18th of March month in the year 2008, according to the report of American bankers JP Morgan and Citigroup would finance with a 3 billion USD loan deal.
Ford announced on the 26th of March month in the year 2008 that it is ready to sell its operations of Land Rover and Jaguar to India’s Tata Motors, and they are expecting to complete the procedures of sale by 2008’s second quarter end. The deal included the rights of 3 other brands of British, such as Daimler of Jaguar, as well as 2 dormant brands Rover and Lanchester. On the 2nd of June month in the year 2008, the sale was completed to Tata Motors for a cost of 1.7 billion Pounds.
The Jaguar Company has had a major achievement in the sports car racing, mainly at the 24 hours Le Mans. Victories came in the year 1951, and in 1953 with model C Type, followed by in the years 1955, 1956, and in 1957 along with D Type. The racing team’s manager Lofty England during this period became as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Jaguar in the 1970s early. Even though the XJ13’s prototype was made in the 1960s mid, it was never participated any kind of race from thereafter, and for many years it left over many famous races, until the 1980s mid when TWR team’s Tom Walkinshaw started to design and prepare Jaguar V12 engine prototypes of sports for sports car races of Europe. Regular winning was started by the team from the year 1987, and with the amplified factory backing the racing team won the famous 24 hours Le Mans in the year 1988, and in 1990.
Ford in the year 1999 decided that Jaguar would going to be the Formula One entry’s corporation. The team Stewart Grand Prix was brought out by Ford and renamed for the 2000 season Jaguar racing. The Formula one program of Jaguar was not initially a success, but on the other hand, achieved only 2 podium finishes in 5 season of participation between 2000 and 2004. At the 2004’s end, with mounting cost and profits of Ford dwindling, the Formula one team was understood as a not required expense and was sold energy drink owner of Red Bull Dietrich Mateschitz, and it became as a Red Bull Racing Team. Jaguar since 2004 has not had an authorised presence in motorsport.
Notable Sports racers of Jaguar team:
· Jaguar C Type from the year 1951 to 1953.
· Jaguar D Type from the year 1954 to 1957.
· Light weight E Type of Jaguar
· XJR Sports cars of Jaguar
· XJ 220 and XJR 15 in the year 1988 and 1990 respectively.
Jaguar was joined by Lotus Cars, MIRA Limited and Caparo on a hybrid luxury executive sedan project funded by the government of United Kingdom’s technology Strategy Board, called “Limo Green”.
The arts and Jaguar
Jaguar for some time at the present has been actively participating in the art scene of international. The Jaguar Company in particular has mutual business enterprise or joined hands with the Stefan Szczesny, who is an artist, employing major projects of arts. Jaguar in the year 2011 presented the series of exhibition “Shadows” that involved the installation of shadow sculptures of Szczesny in Sankt-Moritz, in Saint-Tropez and on Sylt. A variety numerous sculptures in the year 2012, paintings and ceramics were displayed in Frankfurt, and mainly in Palmengarten of Frankfurt.
As a fragment of the mutual hands with Szczesny, the “Jaguar art collection” was released by Jaguar.
For details, visit Jaguar India's official website.